Front end transport covers all the transports of uranium concentrates to uranium hexafluoride conversion facilities, from conversion facilities to enrichment plants, from enrichment plants to fuel fabricators and from fuel fabricators to the various nuclear power plants.
Back end covers all the operations concerned with the spent fuel which leaves the reactors, including the shipment of spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants to reprocessing facilities for recycling, and the subsequent transport of the products of reprocessing.
The IMO Code for the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Flasks on Board Ships (INF Code), introduces advanced safety features for ships carrying spent fuel, MOX or vitrified high-level waste.
Uranium is a naturally occurring element found virtually everywhere throughout the earth’s crust. Processed uranium ore as UOC is shipped in a powder form to fuel conversion facilities in various countries for further processing.
Industry agreed best practices to guide Consignors in preparing the shipment of materials containing natural uranium, chemically separated uranium concentrate samples (solids and liquids), and uranium ore samples.
This factsheet will review the nuclear liability framework and international regimes applicable to transport, before reviewing the insurance and specificities of third party liability for nuclear transport.
This factsheet will determine the Transport Index (TI) and the Criticality Safety Index (CSI) limits on vessels, to be used for the consignment of Uranium Hexafluoride UF6 packages in order to comply with the requirements of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code IMDG 2014 edition.
This paper considers the transport of UF6 packages comprised of type 48X, 48Y and type 30B cylinders.